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Model Bankable Projects

   
   
 

Animal Husbandry

 
Commercial Piggery
 
1. WHY DO PIG FARMING?

The challenges faced by our country in securing the food as well as nutritional security to fast growing population need an integrated approach for livestock farming. Among the various livestock species, piggery is most potential source of meat production and more efficient feed converters after the broiler. Apart from providing meat, it is also a source of bristles and manure. Pig farming will provide employment opportunities to seasonally employed rural farmers and supplementary income to improve their living standards. The advantages of the pig farming are :

  1. The pig has got highest feed conversion efficiency i.e. they produce more live weight gain from a given weight of feed than any other class of meat producing animals except broilers.
  2. The pig can utilise wide variety of feed stuffs viz. grains, forages, damaged feeds and garbage and convert them into valuable nutritious meat. However, feeding of damaged grains, garbage and other unbalanced rations may result in lower feed efficiency.
  3. They are prolific with shorter generation interval. A sow can be bred as early as 8-9 months of age and can farrow twice in a year. They produce 6-12 piglets in each farrowing.
  4. Pig farming requires small investment on buildings and equipments
  5. Pigs are known for their meat yield, which in terms of dressing percentage ranges from 65 - 80 in comparison to other livestock species whose dressing yields may not exceed 65%.
  6. Pork is most nutritious with high fat and low water content and has got better energy value than that of other meats. It is rich in vitamins like thiamin, Niacin and riboflavin.
  7. Pigs manure is widely used as fertilizer for agriculture farms and fish ponds.
  8. Pigs store fat rapidly for which there is an increasing demand from poultry feed, soap, paints and other chemical industries.
  9. Pig farming provides quick returns since the marketable weight of fatteners can be achieved with in a period of 6-8 months.
  10. There is good demand from domestic as well as export market for pig products such as pork, bacon, ham, sausages, lard etc.

2. SCOPE FOR PIG FARMING AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL

ECONOMY

2.1 The pig population of the country is 12.79 million as per the 1992 livestock census and 13.291 million as per 1997 provisional result of census from states and constitutes around 1.30% of the total world's population. The state wise pig population are given in Annexure I . The pork production stands at 4.20 lakh tonnes (1995). During 2001-02 the production of pork and pork products were estimated to be 612550 mt with 3.03% growth rate in last decade. If comprised over 38% of the total world meat product Indian share in piggary meat production  moderately increased from 0.53%in 1981 to 0.63 in 2002.  The contribution of pork products in terms of value works out to 0.80% of total livestock products and 4.32% of the meat and meat products. The contribution of pigs to Indian exports is very poor. About 934 tonnes of pork and pork products were exported during 1995-96. The value of pork and pork products exported is Rs. 262 lakhs against the total value of Rs. 61604 lakhs on account of meat and meat products export.

2.2 The pig farming constitutes the livelihood of rural poor belonging to the lowest socio-economic strata and they have no means to undertake scientific pig farming with improved foundation stock, proper housing, feeding and management. Therefore, suitable schemes to popularise the scientific pig breeding cum rearing of meat producing animals with adequate financial provisions are necessary to modernise the Indian pig industry and to improve the productivity of small sized rural pig farms.

2.3 In view of the importance of pig farming in terms of it's contribution to rural poor and possible potentials for pig rearing in our country, Government of India has initiated measures to promote the pig farming on scientific lines under it's five year plans. The first step towards this direction is establishment of eight bacon factories and organisation of pig production in rural areas attached to bacon factories. In order to make available good foundation stock, regional pig breeding stations were established for each bacon factory. Further expansion of pig breeding programmes paved the way for establishment of 115 pig breeding farms (1992-93) through out the country. The location of bacon factories and pig breeding farms are given in Annexures II and III respectively.

3 FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE FROM BANKS / NABARD FOR

PIG FARMING

3.1 NABARD is an apex institution for all matters relating to policy, planning, and operations in the field of agriculture credit. It serves as refinance agency for the ground level institutions / banks providing investment and production credit for various activities under agriculture and allied sectors for ensuring integrated rural development. It co-ordinates the development activities through a well organised Technical Services Department at the head office and Technical cells at each of the regional offices.

3.2 For undertaking the pig farming on scientific lines, loan from banks with refinance facility from NABARD is available. For obtaining bank loan the farmers / entrepreneurs should apply to the nearest branch of a Commercial, Co-operative or Regional Rural Bank in the prescribed application form, which is available in the branches of financing bank. Necessary help or guidance can be obtained from the technical officer attached to or the manager of the bank in preparing the project report, which is a prerequisite for sanction of the loan.

3.3 For piggery development schemes with very large outlays, detailed project reports will have to be prepared. The items such as land development, construction of sheds and other civil structures, purchase of the breeding stock, equipment, feed cost upto the point of income generation are normally considered under bank loan. Other items of investment will be considered on need basis after providing the satisfactory information justifying the need for such items. The cost of land is not considered for loan. However, if land is purchased for setting up the piggery farm exclusively, it can be considered as beneficiaries margin money.

4. SCHEME FORMULATION

In case of commercial piggery units, the banks are expected to submit a project for availing the refinance. The scheme normally should include information on land, livestock markets, availability of water, feeds, veterinary aid, breeding facilities, marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type of assistance available from State Government Regional Pig breeding centres.

The scheme should also include information on the number of and types of animals to be purchased, their breeds, production performance, cost and other relevant input and output costs with their description. Based on this, the total cost of the project, margin money to be provided by the beneficiary, requirement of bank loan, estimated annual expenditure, income, profit and loss statement, repayment period, etc. can be worked out and included in the project cost.

5. REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD PROJECT

A format prepared by NABARD for formulation of piggery development schemes is given in Annexure IV. The scheme so formulated should be submitted to the nearest branch of bank. The bank's officers can assist in preparation of the scheme or filling in the prescribed application form. The bank will then examine the scheme for its technical feasibility and economic viability.

A) Technical Feasibility - This would briefly include :

  1. Nearness of the selected area to financing bank's branch.
  2. Availability of good quality animals in nearby livestock markets/ breeding farms.
  3. Source and availability of training facilities.
  4. Availability of concentrate feeds and kitchen/ hotel/ vegetable market waste and broken grains from Food corporation godowns.
  5. Availability of medicines, vaccines and veterinary services etc.
  6. Availability of veterinary aid / breeding centres and marketing facilities near the scheme area.
  7. Reasonability of various production and reproduction parameters.

B) Economic Viability - This would briefly include :

  1. Unit cost - The average cost of piggery breeding stock for some of the States is given in Annexure V.
  2. Input cost for feeds, veterinary aid, insurance, labour charges, etc.
  3. Output costs i.e. sale price of fatteners, piglets and culled animals
  4. Income-expenditure statement and annual gross surplus.
  5. Cash flow analysis.

C. Bankability :

Repayment schedule (i.e. repayment of principal loan amount and interest.)

Other documents such as loan application forms, security aspects, margin money requirements etc. are also examined. A field visit to the scheme area is undertaken for conducting a techno- economic feasibility study for appraisal of the scheme. The economics of piggery unit is given in Annexure VIa- VIf.

6.  SANCTION OF BANK LOAN AND ITS DISBURSEMENT

After ensuring technical feasibility and economic viability, the scheme is sanctioned by the bank. The loan is disbursed in stages against creation of specific assets such as construction of sheds, purchase of equipments and animals. The end use of the fund is verified and constant follow-up is done by the bank.

7.   LENDING TERMS - GENERAL

7.1  Unit cost

Each Regional Office (R.O) of NABARD has constituted a State Level Unit Cost Committee under the chairmanship of RO- in-charge and with the members from developmental agencies, commercial banks and cooperative banks to review the unit cost of various investments once in six months. The same is circulated among the banks for their guidance.

7.2  Margin Money

NABARD has defined farmers into three different categories and where subsidy is not available, the minimum down payment as shown below is collected from the beneficiaries.

 

Sr.No.

Category of Farmer

Beneficiary's Contribution

a)

Small farmers

5%

b)

Medium farmers

10%

c)

Large farmers

15%

7.3   Interest Rate for ultimate borrower

Banks are free to decide the role of interest within the overall RBI guidelines. However, for working out the financial viability and bankability of the model project we have assumed the rate of interest as 12% p.a.

7.4 Security

Security will be as per NABARD/RBI guidelines issued from time to time.

7.5 Repayment Period of Loan

Repayment period depends upon the gross surplus in the scheme. The loans will be repaid in suitable half yearly/annual instalments usually within a period of about 5-6 years with a grace period of one year.

7.6   Insurance

The animals may be insured annually or on long term master policy, where ever it is applicable. The present premium rate for non IRDP schemes is 6% per annum.

8.   PACKAGE OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES RECOMMENDED FOR

COMMERCIAL PIG FARMING

Modern and well established scientific principles, practices and skills should be used to obtain maximum economic benefits from pig farming. Some of the major norms and recommended practices are given hereunder:

I. Housing management:

  1. Construct shed on dry and properly raised ground.
  2. Avoid water-logging, marshy and heavy rainfall areas.
  3. The side walls of the sheds should be 4-5 ft. high and remaining height should be fitted with GI pipes or wooden poles.
  4. The walls should be plastered to make them damp proof.
  5. The roof should be atleast 8-10 ft. high.
  6. The pig stys should be well ventilated.
  7. The floor should be pucca/hard, even, non-slippery, impervious, well sloped (3 cm per metre) and properly drained to remain dry and clean.
  8. A feed trough space of 6-12 inches per pig should be provided.
  9. The corners of feed troughs, drains and walls should be rounded for easy cleaning.
  10. Provide adequate open space for each animal i.e. double the covered area
  11. Provide proper shade and cool drinking water in summer.
  12. Dispose of dung and urine properly.
  13. Individual pens for boars/lactating sows should be constructed.
  14. The dry sows/fatteners can be housed in group pens.
  15. Give adequate space for the animals. (The housing space requirement of pigs in various categories/age groups is given in Annexure VII).


II. Selection of breeding stock:

  1. Immediately after release of the loan, purchase the stock from a reliable breeder or from nearest livestock market.
  2. For commercial pig farming upgraded / cross bred or exotic stock in good health should be selected.
  3. While selecting a gilt or sow primary aim should be to secure a female that will produce large survivable litter and which can attain marketable weight at an age of six months or less. This can be done with the help of pedigree records/Veterinarian / Bank's technical officer.
  4. Purchase animals which are ready to be bred.
  5. Identify the newly purchased animal by giving suitable identification mark (ear notching or tattooing).
  6. Vaccinate the newly purchased animals against diseases.
  7. Keep the newly purchased animal under observations for a period of about two weeks and then mix with the other animals.
  8. Purchase a minimum economical unit as suggested.
  9. Purchase animals in two batches at the interval of three months.
  10. Follow judicious culling and replacement of animals in a herd.
  11. Cull the old animals after 10-12 farrowings.


III. Feeding management:

  1. Feed the animals with best feeds.
  2. Give adequate concentrates in the ration.
  3. Provide adequate vitamins and minerals.
  4. Provide adequate clean water.
  5. Give adequate exercise to the animals.
  6. The feeding of the piglets is more critical and high quality and more fortified diets are needed for feeding them.
  7. Feeding of the sows during pregnancy is utmost important for increased litter size.
  8. The feed requirements of lactating sow varies with the size of the litter, weight, size and age of sow.
  9. Commercial pig farming should aim at the exploitation of nonconventional feed resources viz., waste from Kitchen/hotel/ cold storage/warehouses, in replacing the balanced rations to minimise the cost of production.
  10. The feeding regime adopted should take care of all the nutrient requirements of various categories of pigs. The nutrient requirements of breeding stock and growing pigs are given in Annexure VIIIa and VIIIb respectively.


IV. Protection against Diseases:

  1. Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behaviour.
  2. Consult the nearest veterinary aid centre for help if illness is suspected.
  3. Protect the animals against common diseases.
  4. In case of outbreak of contagious diseases, immediately segregate the sick and the healthy animals and take necessary disease control measures.
  5. Deworm the animals regularly.
  6. Examine the faeces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs.
  7. Wash the animals from time to time to promote sanitation.
  8. Strictly follow the recommended vaccine schedule as given in Annexure IX.


V. Breeding care:

  1. Pigs are highly prolific in nature and two farrowings in a year should be planned by adopting optimal management conditions
  2. For every 10 sows one boar must be maintained for maximum fertility.
  3. Breed the animals when it is in peak heat period (i.e. 12 to 24 hours of heat).


VI. Care during Pregnancy:

Give special attention to pregnant sows one week before farrowing by providing adequate space, feed, water etc. The sows as well as farrowing pens should be disinfected 3-4 days before the expected date of farrowing and the sows should be placed in the farrowing pen after bedding it properly.

VII. Care of Piglets:

  1. Take care of new born piglets by providing guard rails.
  2. Treat / disinfect the navel cord with tincture of iodine as soon as it is cut with a sharp knife.
  3. Feed on mothers milk for first 6-8 weeks along with creep feed.
  4. Protect the piglets against extreme weather conditions, particularly during the first two months.
  5. Needle teeth should be clipped shortly after birth.
  6. Vaccinate the piglets as per recommended vaccination schedule.
  7. Supplementation of Iron to prevent piglet anaemia is necessary.
  8. The piglets meant for sale as breeder stock must be reared properly.
  9. Male piglets not selected for breeding should be castrated preferably at the age of 3-4 weeks which will prevent the boar odour in the cooked meat thus it enables production of quality meat.
  10. Additional feed requirements of lactating sow must be ensured for proper nursing of all the piglets born.


VIII. Marketing:

The marketable products of the piggery farming includes the piglets as breeding stock, piglets as fatteners, marketable fatteners and culls. The marketing avenues for the above products are like satellite fattening farms / breeding cum rearing farms and pork consumption centres. In order to promote the consumption of pork it should be supplied to the consumers in an attractive form. Therefore availability of either slaughtering facilities or bacon factories are to be ensured to convert the fatteners into wholesome pork and their products. The bacon factories that are being operated in our country are furnished in the annexure II . The sale of piglets at 2-3 months of age will yield quick returns and enables the pig farmer to concentrate their efforts on maximizing the productivity of breeder stock. The other marketing strategy can be rearing of piglets upto marketing age for their sale as fatteners. Based on the market demand appropriate marketing strategy must be adopted in consultation with the local animal husbandry department officials.

 

Annexure - I

State wise pig population in India (1997)

 (In thousands)

Sl No. States/U.T.s Total
1 Andhra Pradesh 748
2 Arunachal Pradesh 249
3 Assam 1082
4 Bihar 924
5 Chattisgarh 456
6 Goa 105
7 Gujarat 198
8 Haryana 700
9 Himachal Pradesh 7
10 Jammu & Kashmir 12
11 Karnataka 405
12 Kerala 88
13 Madhya Pradesh 375
14 Maharashtra 567
15 Manipur 388
16 Meghalaya 351
17 Mizoram 163
18 Nagaland 571
19 Orissa 602
20 Punjab 96
21 Rajasthan 305
22 Sikkim 27
23 Tamil Nadu 609
24 Tripura 211
25 Uttar Pradesh 3135
26 Uttaranchal 32
27 West Bengal 805
  Union Territories  
28 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 43
29 Chandigarh 3
30 Dadra & N Haveli 0
31 Daman & Diu 0
32 Delhi 31
33 Lakshadweep 0
34 Pondicherry 1
  All INDIA 13291

Note:- '—' indicates less than thousand.

Annexure - II

List of Bacon factories

 

S.No.

State

Capacity

(No. of Pigs/Days)

Address

1

Uttar Pradesh

100

Bacon Factory

Central Dairy farm, Aligarh

2

West Bengal

20

Bacon Factory

Harringhatta - 721 436

Mohanpur, Nadia.

3

Andhra Pradesh

100

Government Bacon Factory,

Gannavaram-521101

Krishna Dist.

4

Bihar

50

Government Bacon Factory,

Kanke - 834005

Ranchi

5

Maharashtra

100

MAFCO Bacon Factory,

National Park,

Borivali, Mumbai-400 022

6

Rajasthan

50

Meat Complex,

Alwar-301001

7

Kerala

50

Meat Products of India,

Koothakulam - 686662

Ernakulam

8

Punjab

20

Pork processing plant,

Kharar\140301

Annexure - III

Statewise location of pig breeding farms

 

Sr.No.

State

Location of breeding farms

1

Andhra Pradesh

Gannavaram, Gopannapalem, Muktalya, Padavagi, Tirupathi, Vishakapatnam

2

Arunachal Pradesh

Karsingsa, Loiliang

3

Assam

Diphu, Haflong, Kaliapani, Khanapara (University), Kanapara (ACRIP), Khanapara (Govt.), Khanikar, Marigoan

4

Bihar

Gaurikarma, Hotwar, Jamshedpur, Kanke

5

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

Port Silvasa

6

Goa

Curti Ponda, Ela

7

Haryana

Ambala City, Hissar

8

Karnataka

Hassarghatta, Koila, Kudige

9

Kerala

Ankamaly, Koothattukulam, Kunnamkulam, Mannuthy,Mundayal, Parasala, Thalayda Parambu

10

Madhya Pradesh

Bastar, Jabalpur, Sakalo

11

Manipur

None Tamenglong, Senepati North, Tarang, Torbumg

12

Meghalaya

Baghmora, Dalu, Jowai, Mairang, Mawryngkneg, Nongstoin,Pynursla, Rongjeng, Rongkhon

13

Mizoram

Kolasih, Lunglei, Selesih, Thenzawl

14

Nagaland

Alukute, Medziphema, Merang, Phek, Suthazu, Tijit, Tunesand,

15

Orissa

Bhaminagar, Chiplima

16

Punjab

Badal, Chhaju Majra, Gurdaspur, Jalandar, Ludhiana, Maltowara,

17

Rajasthan

Alwar, Bharatpur

18

Sikkim

Gyalsing, Tadong

19

Tamil Nadu

Chettinad, Hosur, Pudukottai, Saidpet, Udagamandalam

 

20

Tripura

Amarpur, Birchandramanu, Gandhi Gram, Mendhihaor, Nabincherra, Nalkata

 

21

Uttar Pradesh

Aligarh, Arzilins, Barabanki, Basti, Dehradun, Izzatnagar,Lalitpur, Moradabad, Nilgaon

22

West Bengal

Bijanbari, Haringhatta, Pedong, Singruntaum, St. Mary's Hill Turki

Annexure IV

Format for submission of schemes

Scheme : Commercial Pig farming

 

1. GENERAL

i) Name of the sponsoring bank

ii) Address of the controlling office sponsoring scheme

iii) Nature and objectives of the proposed scheme

iv) Details of proposed investments

S.No.

Investment

No. of units

a)

 

 

b)

 

 

c)

 

 

v) Specification of the scheme area

(Name of District & Block/s)

S.No.

District

Block

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

vi) Names of the financing bank's branches

S.No.

Name of the branch

District

a)

 

 

b)

 

 

c)

 

 

vii) Status of beneficiary/ies : Partnership/Company/Corporation/ Co-operative
Society/Others)

viii) In case of area based schemes, coverage of borrowers in weaker sections
(landless labourers, small, medium & large farmers as per NABARD's norms, SC/ST, etc.)

ix) Details of borrowers profile (Not applicable to area based schemes)

(a) Capability

(b) Experience

(c) Financial soundness

(d) Technical/Other special Qualifications

(e) Technical/Managerial Staff and adequacy thereof

2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS

a) Animals

i) Proposed Breed

ii) Age of the animal

iii) Arrangements for vaccination, identification and health certificate

iv) Insurance

v) Cost of Boar/Sows/Pigs

b) Production parameters

i) Age at first Farrowing

ii) Farrowing interval

iii) Farrowing percentage

iv) Number of piglets produced

v) Mortality of adults/young ones

vi) Age at which piglets / fatteners are sold

vii) Body weight of animals

c) Herd projection-For big units only (with all assumptions)

d) Housing

i) Type of housing

ii) Floor space – adults / piglets / fatteners

iii) Cost of construction

iv) Other civil structures (for commercial units)

e) Equipment needed

i) Water troughs

ii) Feeding troughs

iii) Other equipments

f) Comments on technical feasibility

g) Government restrictions, if any

3. FINANCIAL ASPECTS

i) Unit cost

 

S.No.

Name  of  investment

Size of unit

Unit cost with component wise breakup (Rs.)

Whther approved state level unit cost committee

 

 

 

a)

 

 

 

 

b)

 

 

 

 

c)

 

 

 

 

Total

 

ii) Down payment/margin/subsidy (Indicate source& extent of subsidy)

iii) Year - wise physical & financial programme

 

Year

Investment

No. of  units

Unit cost

(Rs.)

Total outlay (Rs.)

Margin

(Rs.)

Bank loan (Rs.)

Refinance assistance (Rs.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

iv) Financial viability ( comment on the cash flow projection on a farm

model / unit and enclose the same ) particulars

Particulars

Item  of  investment

X

Y

 

a) Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

 

 

 

b) Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)

 

 

 

c) Net Present Worth (NPW)

 

 

 

v) Financial position of the borrowers (to be furnished in case of corporate bodies/partnership firms)

a) Profitability ratio

i) GP ratio

ii) NP ratio

b) Debt equity ratio

c) Whether Income tax & other tax obligations are paid upto date

d) Whether audit is upto date (enclose copies of audited financial statements for
the last three years)

vi) Lending Terms

i) Rate of interest

ii) Grace period

iii) Repayment period

iv) Nature of Security

v) Availability of Government guarantee wherever necessary

4. INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES

a) Availability of animals

i) Source

ii) Place of purchase

iii) Distance

iv) Type of arrangements for purchase

v) Availability in required numbers

b) Feeding

i) Type of feeds

ii) Source

iii) Cost/animal/year

c) Breeding / Veterinary services

i) Source

ii) Place

iii) Distance

iv) Type of services available

v) Availability of staff

vi) Cost/animal/year

d) Marketing

i) Source for piglets, fatteners and culled animals

ii) Place

iii) Distance

iv) Price realised (Rs.per animal or Kg)

- Culls

- Piglets

- Fatteners

- Pork etc.

E) Other aspects

i) Source of technical guidance

ii) Training facilities

- Source

- Periodicity

- Duration

iii) Other Government support

F) Supervision and Monitoring arrangements available with bank

Annexure Va

Economics of pig farming - At a glance

 

1

Unit size

10 Sows with 1 Boar

2

System of rearing

Semi intensive system

3

State

Karnataka

4

Unit cost (Rs.)

186,680

5

Bank loan (Rs.)

158860

6

Margin money (Rs.)

28029

7

Repayment period (years)

5 with one year grace period

8

Interest rate(%)

12

9

BCR at 15% DF

1.54:1

10

NPW at 15 % DF (Rs.)

197796

11

IRR (%)

68


Annexure Vb

 

Economics of pig farming - Investment cost (10 Sows + 1 Boar)

Sr.No.

Particulars

Specifications

Physical Units

Unit cost (Rs./ unit)

Total cost (Rs.)

1

Sheds and other structures

 

 

 

 

 

a) Farrowing pens (4) for lactating sow

100 sft per

400 sft

70

28,000

 

b) Boar cum service pen

70 sft. per boar

70 sft

70

4900

 

c) Dry sow pens(6)

20 sft per fattener

120 sft

 

8400

 

d) Fattener shed -I

10 sft per fattener

200 sft

 

14000

 

e) Fattener shed -II

15 sft per fattener

300 sft

 

21000

 

f) Store room

 

100 sft

120

12000

 

 

 

 

 

88300

2

Water supply system (Bore well, electric motor pumpset - 1HP, water tank

Lumpsum

 

 

15000

3

Cost of equipment

Lumpsum

 

 

2000

4

Cost of breeding stock

 

 

 

 

 

a) Cost of sows

 

10

1800

18000

 

b) Cost of boar

 

1

2500

2500

5

Capitalisation of recurring expenses for first one year

 

 

 

 

 

a) Breeder feed cost

3 kg per boar

3.5 kg per sow 70% kitchen garbage

30% conc. feed

12208 kg

8545.25 kg 3662.25 kg

0.75

6

6409

14649

4

 

b) Weaner feed cost

0.2 kg per piglet/day

1080 kg

7

7560

 

c) Ist batch of fattener feed cost

1.5 kg per fattener/day 70% kitchen garbage

30% conc.feed

1890 kg

810 kg

 0.75

 6

1418

4860

 

d) Insurance cost

6% of breeding stock cost

 

 

1230

 

e) labour wages

 

1

1250

15000

 

f) Cost of medicines etc. for breeder stock for weaners/fatteners

 

117 animal

month

240 animal months

5

 

3

585

720

 

g) Misc. expenses for breeder stock

for weaners/fatteners

 

117 animal months

 

240 animal months

5

 

 3

585

 

720

6

Total financial out lay (TFO)

 

 

 

186861

7

Margin money @ 15% of TFO

 

 

say

28029

 

8

Bank loan @ 85% of TFO

 

 

say

158831

 

Annexure - Vc

ECONOMICS OF PIG FARMING - TECHN0

ECONOMIC PARAMETERS

1

No. of sows (6-7 months old)

10

2

No. of boars

1

3

No. of batches

2

4

Interval between two batches (months)

3

5

No. of farrowings per year

2

6

No. of piglets per sow per farrowing

11

7

Mortality among piglets (weaners)

20%

8

Mortality among fatteners

10%

9

Mortality among adults is not considered as insurance cover is available

 

10

Weaning period (months)

2

11

Space requirement (s.ft.)

 

 

Boar

70

 

Lactating sow with it's piglets

100

 

Dry sow

20

 

Fattener of 3-5 months age

10

 

Fattener of 6-8 months age

15

12

Store room (s.ft.)

100

13

Supplementary feed requirement (kg./day)

 

 

Boar

3

 

Sow

3.5

 

Weaner

0.2

 

Fattener (3-5 months age)

1.5

 

Fattener (6-8 months age)

2

14

Concentrate feed % to total feed

30

15

Kitchen garbage % to total feed

70

16

Cost of construction of sheds (Rs./s.ft.)

75

17

Cost of construction of store room (Rs./s.ft.)

125

18

Cost of boar (Rs.)

2500

19

Cost of sow (Rs.)

1800

20

Cost of weaner feed (Rs./kg)

7

21

Cost of concentrate feed (Rs./kg)

6

22

Cost of kitchen garbage (Rs./kg)

0.75

23

Insurance (%)

6

24

Cost of medicines and vaccines

 

 

Weaner/fattener (Rs./month)

3

 

Adults (Rs./month)

5

25

Cost of power, water, other misc. expenses

 

 

Weaner/fattener (Rs./month)

3

 

Adults (Rs./month)

5

26

No. of labourers required

1

27

Labourer wages (Rs. per month)

1250

28

No of piglets sold per sow per farrowing

(2 months old)

4

29

No. of fatteners sold per sow per farrowing

(8 months old)

4

30

Sale price of piglet (Rs./piglet)

600

31

Avg. wt. of fattener (kg.)

80

32

Sale price of fattener (Rs./fattener)

1700

33

Income from manure

 

 

Weaner/fattener (Rs./month)

2

 

Adults (Rs./month)

5

34

No. of gunny bags per ton of feed

13.3

35

Income from gunny bags (Rs./bag)

6

36

Depreciation on sheds (%)

5

37

Depreciation on equipments etc.(%)

10

38

Margin money (%)

15

39

Interest rate (%)

12

40

Repayment period (years)

5

41

Grace period (years)

1

 Annexure - V d

ECONOMICS OF PIG FARMING - HERD PROJECTION CHART

Year

Month

Breeding stock

No. of piglets born

No. of Suckling piglets $

No. of 
fatteners $

Piglets

Sale
of fatte
ners

 

 

Ist batch

II batch

 

 

3-5 months $

6-8 months $

 

 

I

1

G

--

 

--

--

--

 

 

 

2

G

--

 

--

--

--

 

 

 

3

G

--

 

--

--

--

 

 

 

4

P

G

 

--

--

--

 

 

 

5

P

G

 

--

--

--

 

 

 

6

P

G

 

--

--

--

 

 

 

7

P

P

 

--

--

--

 

 

 

8

L

P

55

45

--

--

 

`

 

9

L

P

55

45

--

--

 

 

 

10

P

P

 

--

20

--

--

 

 

11

P

L

55

45

20

--

--

 

 

12

P

L

55

45

20

--

20

 

II

13

P

P

 

--

20

20

--

 

 

14

L

P

55

45

20

20

--

 

 

15

L

P

55

45

20

20

20

20

 

16

P

P

 

--

20

20

--

 

 

17

P

L

55

45

20

20

--

 

 

18

P

L

55

45

20

20

20

20

 

19

P

P

 

--

20

20

--

--

 

20

L

P

55

45

20

20

--

 

 

21

L

P

55

45

20

20

20

20

 

22

P

P

 

--

20

20

--

--

 

23

P

L

55

45

20

20

--

--

 

24

P

L

55

45

20

20

20

20

III

so on..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G- Growing period; P - Pregnancy period; L - Lactating period

$ No. of piglets and fatteners of different age groups for working out economies were

taken after considering the mortality as it occurs usually at an early age in pigs.

Closing stock and it's value

1. Breeding stock (10+1):150% of original value

2. One batch of 2 months old piglets : Sale value of piglets

3.One batch of 5 months old : 60% of sale price of fattener

  

Annexure - V(E)

ECONOMICS OF PIG FARMING - CASHFLOW ANALYSIS

ECONOMICS OF PIG FARMING - REPAYMENT SCHEDULE

Bank loan (Rs.) 158832

 

Interest (%) 12%                                                                                              (Rupees)

Years

Income

Expe
nditure

Gross Surplus

Loan
Ba
lance

Interest

Repayments

Net
Sur
plus

Interest

Principal

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

I

15792

0

15792

158832

14 295

-

-

15792

II

19823

93630

98193

177126

20775

21347

37126

40292

III

19823

93631

98193

136000

16320

16320

40000

41873

IV

19823

93630

98193

96 000

11520

11520

40000

46673

V

19823

93630

241478

56000

6720

6720

56000

178758

* Capitalised

Note : Average loan period in first year is considered as

9 months for working out interest amount. 

 Annexure - VI

SPACE REQUIREMENT OF PIGS

Type of animal

Floor space requirement

(Sq. Mt. per animal)

Maximum number of animals per pen

 

Covered area

Open paddock

 

Boar

6.0-7.0

8.8-12.0

Individual pens

Farrowing pen

7.0-9.0

8.8-12.0

Individual pens

Fattener

(3-5 months old)

0.9-1.2

0.9-1.2

30

Fattener (above five months)

1.3-1.8

1.3.1.8

30

Dry sow/gilt

1.8-2.7

1.4-1.8

3-10

Annexure - VIIa

NUTRIENTS REQUIREMENT OF BREEDING STOCK

Type

Breed Gilts

Lactating gilts and sows

Young boars & adult boars

Liveweight (kg.)

110-250

140-250

110-250

Energy and protein

 

 

 

DE (Mcal/kg)

3.3

3.3

3.3

ME (Mcal/kg)

3.17

3.17

3.17

Crude Protein (%)

14

15

14

Inorganic nutrients (%)

 

 

 

Calcium

0.75

0.75

0.75

Phosphorus

0.5

0.5

0.5

Salt

0.5

0.5

0.5

Annexure VII b NUTRIENT REQUIREMENT OF GROWING STOCK

Type

Liveweight (kg)

Daily gain (kg)

Weaning

5-12

0.3

Growing

12-50

0.5

Finishing

50-100

0.6

Energy and protein

 

 

 

DE ( Mcal/kg)

3.5

3.5

3.3

ME (Mcal/kg)

3.36

3.36

3.17

Crude Protein (%)

22

18

14

Inorganic nutrients (%)

 

 

 

Calcium

0.8

0.65

0.5

Phosphorus

0.6

0.5

0.4

Sodium

--

0.1

--

Chlorine

--

0.13

--

Annexure VIII      VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR PIGS

Sr.No.

Name of disease

Type of vaccine

Time of  vaccination

Duration of immunity period

Remarks

1

Anthrax

Spore vaccine

Once in a year, premonsoon vaccination

One season

 

2

Hog Cholera

Crystal Violet vaccine

After weaning

One year

 

3

Foot and mouth disease

Polyvalent tissue culture vaccine

At about six months of age with booster done after 4 months

One season

After vaccine repeat Vaccination every year in October/November

4

Swine Erysipelas

Alum treated vaccine

After weaning with a booster dose after 3-4 weeks

About one year

 

5

Tuberculosis

B.C.G vaccine

At about six months of age

One to two years

To be repeated every 2 or 3 years

 
 
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